Directions (1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions. Certain words/phrases are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
At first glance, the patriarchy appears to be thriving. More than 90% of Presidents and Prime Ministers are male, as are all nearly big corporate bosses. Men dominate finance, technology, films, sports, music, and even stand-up comedy. In much of the world they still enjoy social and legal privileges simply because they have a Y chromosome. So it might seem odd to worry about the plight of men. Yet there is plenty of cause for concern. Men cluster at the bottom as well at the top. Poorly educated men in rich countries have had difficulty coping with the enormous changes in the labour market and the home over the past half-century. As technology and trade have devalued brawn, less-educated men have struggled to find a role in the workplace. Women, on the other hand, are surging into expanding sectors such as health care and education, helped by their superior skills. As education has become more important, boys have also fallen behind girls in school (except at the very top). Men who lose jobs in manufacturing often never work again. And men without work find it hard to support a family. The result for low-skilled men is a poisonous combination of no job, no family and no prospects.Some tend to focus on economics. Shrinking job opportunities for men, they say are entrenching poverty and destroying families. in America pay for men with only a high school certificate fell by 21% in real terms between 1979 and 2013. For women with similar qualifications, it raised by 3%. Around a fifth of working-age American men with only a high school have no job. But both economic and social changes are to blame and the two causes reinforce each other. Moreover, these problems are likely to get worse. Technology will disrupt more industries, creating benefits for society but rendering workers who fail to update their skills redundant. The OECD, a think tank, predicts that the absolute number of single-parent households will continue to rise in nearly all rich countries. boys, who grow up without fathers are more likely to have trouble forming lasting relationships, creating a cycle of male dysfunction.What can be done? Part of the solution lies in a change in cultural attitudes. Over the past generation, men have learned that they need to help with childcare and have changed their behaviour. Women have learned that they can be surgeons and physicists not at cost of motherhood. Policymakers also need to lend a hand, because foolish laws are making the problems worse. Governments need to recognise that boys underachievement is a serious problem and set about fixing it. Some sensible policies that are good for everybody are particularly good for boys with more structure and a better chance of developing verbal and social skills. Countries with successful vocational systems such as Germany have done a better job motivating non-academic boys and guiding them into jobs, but policymakers need to reinvent vocational education for an age when trainers are more likely to get jobs in hospitals than factories. The growing equality of the genders is one of the biggest achievements of the post-war era people have greater opportunities than ever before to achieve their ambitions regardless of their gender. but some even have failed to cope with this new world. It is time to give them a hand.
What do the statistics in the passage with regard to America indicate?
Pay and employment for men with low skills has fallen.
Less than ten percent of American politicians are women.
Men dominate most high paying professions such as surgery etc.
americans are protected from labour market disruptions by a strong social welfare system.
At both the top and bottom of the job pyramid women are losing out of men.
Answer: (a) Pay and employment for men with low skills has fallen.Solution: No description.
According to the passage, what can be said about families today?
It is difficult for families to survive on the earnings of one parent.
The size of the family is shrinking which will cause a problem of an ageing population soon.
Parents favour sons over daughters causing an unhealthy social mindset.
Poverty and lack of education among men is putting the family structure at risk.
None of the given options can be said.
Answer: (d) Poverty and lack of education among men is putting the family structure at risk.Solution: No description.
Choose the word/group of words which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word ENJOY given in bold as used in the passage.
Answer: (a) benefit fromSolution: The meaning of the word/group 'enjoy' and 'benefit from' is nearly the same.
Choose the word/group of words which is opposite in meaning as the word ENTRENCHING given in bold as used in the passage.
Answer: (b) reducingSolution: The meaning of the word 'ENTRENCHING' is to establish (someone) in a position of great strength whereas the meaning of the word 'reducing' is to weaken.
Which of the following best describes the author's opinion about vocational education?
Germany's model of vocational guidance need not be adopted by other countries.
There should be less focus on vocational skills.
Vocational education should equip men with better skills than they do at present.
Vocational education for women should be given more financial support.
Rather than obtaining an unaffordable university education, vocational education is a practical solution.
Answer: (c) Vocational education should equip men with better skills than they do at present.Solution: No description.
Choose the word/group of words which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word STRUCTURE given in bold as used in the passage.
Answer: (c) assemblySolution: The meaning of the word 'structure' is the state of being well organised which is nearly the same as 'assembly'.
Which of the following is true in the context of the passage?
Underachievement of boys at school is a problem prevalent in japan and America.
Most of the government funds for vocational education are misused.
Women are still not well represented in high positions.
The number of children with learning disabilities is on the rise in rich countries.
None of the given statements is true in the context of the passage.
Answer: (c) Women are still not well represented in high positions.Solution: No description.
Which of the following is an appropriate title for the passage?
Flying Too High
Beyond Face Value: Men at
The Fundamentals of Achievement
Poverty Misleading Figures
Health, Wealth and the Origins of Inequality
Answer: (b) Beyond Face Value: Men atSolution: No description.
Which of the following factors has/have an impact on the current state of male employment?(A). Men's failure to update their skills.(B). Single parent households with an absent father.(C). Adoption of technological changes in low skill jobs.
All (A), (B),, and (C)
Only (A) and (B)
Only (A) and (C)
Answer: (d) Only (A) and (B)Solution: No description.
Choose the word/group of words which is opposite in meaning as the word SURGING given in bold as used in the passage.
Answer: (e) disappearingSolution: The meaning of the word 'surging' is to suddenly increase in value and the meaning of the word 'disappearing' is to stop existing.